This work discuss the theme methodology of the scientific research. Aims to eliminate the huge terminological imprecision, taxonomic, conceptual and conteudal present in his vast critical literature and to develop a new taxonomy of knowledge. Therefore, we carried out a comprehensive bibliographic and documentary review on the subject. Its general fundamentals are in Barros and Lefheld (2000; 2007), and Köche (1997; 2011); their epistemological are in Vasconcellos (2010), Tan (2012), Vergara (2012), and Fernandez Berni (2012), Mehta (1938), Piaget (1973) and Giles (1979); their rationales are in Popper (1972), and Kant (2001; 2004); its technical foundations are in Creswell (2010), Gil (1999, 2010), Marconi and Lakatos (2003; 2007; 2008), Luna (2011), Eco (2012), Martins (2008), Moura and Ferreira ( 2005), Oliveira (1997), Severino (2007), Soares (2003), Thiollent (2003), Yin (2010), Rodrigues (2006), Castro (1978), Acevedo and Nohara (2010), Rodrigues (2007), Sampieri, Collado and Profit (2006), among many others. Inobstante, it approaches this study qualitatively and is used: the critical-dialectical method, or historical-structural, as the epistemological basis of research; the hypothetical-deductive method, as the basis of his thought structure; and the non-participant observational method, the bibliographic and documentary type, such as the procedural basis of its investigation. It argues that: a) all scientific research is observational; b) the observation can be classified as: participant (on site), non-participating (ex situ) or hybrid (in parts ex situ and in situ parts); c) participant observation can be classified as controlled (experimental research) or uncontrolled (non-experimental research); d) the non-participant observation can be classified as: interactive (eg sample survey site, for example) or non-interactive (bibliographic and documentary surveys); e) all scientific research is necessarily a scientific work, but not all scientific work is a scientific research; f) A compilation work is not, as a rule, a scientific research unless the results represent significant advances for the theme; g) for a scientific work be regarded as a scientific research is required to produce its results with or without breakthrough, significant improvements in one or more of the following fields: terminology, concepts, taxonomies, content, techniques, application organizations. It concludes that: a) the epistemological pillar is the strategic pillar, managerial, scientific research and has three main methods: the critical-dialectical, phenomenological-hermeneutical and empirical-analytic; b) the logical pillar is the tactical pillar, management, scientific research and has ten main methods: the hypothetical-inductive, the hypothetical-deductive, axiomatic-inductive, the axiomatic-deductive, syllogistic-inductive, syllogistic deductive the semantic-inductive, deductive semantic, pragmatic-inductive and deductive pragmatic; c) the technical pillar is the operational pillar functional, scientific research and has three main methods: the participant observational (spot), the observational nonparticipating (ex situ) and hybrid (in parts on site and parts ex loco ).