The primary objective of this project was to establish a suite of indicator pharmaceuticals and potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to be used for evaluating the exposure and health implications from drinking water. A secondary objective was the development of robust analytical methods to identify and quantify the indicator compounds in raw and finished drinking water. The final objective was the evaluation of toxicity data with occurrence data in order to develop a human health risk assessment for indicator pharmaceuticals and potential EDCs in U.S. drinking waters.
A suite of 62 indicator pharmaceuticals and potential EDCs were selected based upon literature reviews of potential for toxicity, propensity for occurrence, and analytical capability. Robust analytical methods utilizing isotope-dilution and tandem mass spectrometry were developed in order to monitor the raw and finished waters of 20 U.S. drinking water facilities with ng/L sensitivity. An in vitro bioassay was used to screen for estrogenicity in the same waters. A series of bottled waters and food and beverage items were also screened for estrogenicity for a benchmark comparison. Risk evaluations for exposure through drinking water were conducted for 16 pharmaceuticals, 10 potential EDCs, and 3 steroid hormones. ADIs were calculated using methods consistent with USEPA approaches for determining levels of exposure to environmental contaminants.
|Produto sob encomenda||Sim|
|Marca||IWA Publishing POD|
|Ano da edição||2010|
|Número de Páginas||146|
|Autor||S. Snyder; R. Trenholm; E. Snyder|